Applying Emotional Intelligence

The term emotional intelligence conveys some aspects of present-day zeitgeists; it captures something of the many competing interests or spirits of our age (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso 2000b, p. 97).

Emotional Intelligence is an emerging idea and as such there is no absolute definition for it. Over the last two decades a number of definitions have been developed. Psychologists Dr John Mayer, of the University of New Hampshire, and Dr Peter Salovey, of Yale University, first published two scientific articles on emotional intelligence in 1990. The literature on emotional intelligence derives largely from these two articles in the research area of scientific psychology; specifically the areas of personality psychology and social intelligence (Brackett & Mayer 2003; Mayer 2000b; Mayer & Salovey 1997; Mayer et al. 2000a; Mayer et al. 2001; Salovey & Mayer 1990).

Available literature on the topic since 1990, discusses the conception, measurement, models, and utility of emotional intelligence, including vigorous debate as to whether emotional intelligence is intelligence at all (Davies et al. 1998; Emmerling & Goleman 2003; Mayer & Salovey 1993; Mayer & Salovey 1997; Palmer et al. 2005; Roberts et al. 2001; Salovey & Mayer 1990). The final form of emotional intelligence – perhaps as the best predictor of success in life (Freedman 2005) – was yet to emerge. The history of the field was still being written (Caruso 2005).

Since the popularization of the concept of emotional intelligence in a social science book of the same name (Goleman 1995), the appearance of emotional intelligence on the cover of TIME Magazine (Gibbs 1995), and the Mayer and Salovey (1997) article, “What is emotional intelligence?”, a lot has been written on the subject in the psychology, social science, neuropsychology, and management disciplines.

Despite this, a clearly identified construct of emotional intelligence had not been identified and there was no consensual definition of the term “emotional intelligence” (Davies et al. 1998; Matthews et al. 2004; Palmer, Gardiner & Stough 2003b), but work on identifying this construct has begun (Bar-On & Parker 2000). Several authors have since constructed further models of emotional intelligence.

Since its beginnings in the early 1990s a number of different models and measures of Emotional Intelligence have been developed including: Bar-On, 1997; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Mayer & Salovey, 1997;Goleman, 1998; Palmer & Stough 2001. You can read my 2006 summary of models of emotional intelligence here. Of these, arguably one of most theoretically advanced is Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) ability model.

The ability model has been conceptualized from research and theory on moods, emotions, and the processing of emotional information. It describes Emotional Intelligence as intelligence in the traditional sense. That is, as a conceptually related set of abilities to do with emotions and the processing of emotional information that are a part of, and contribute to, logical thought and intelligence in general.

It is the Mayer, Salovey and Caruso ability model, Bar-on EQ-i trait approach, and Genos competency model of emotional intelligence that inform EASEQuadrant, my systematic method of learning for applying emotional intelligence in your personal life, home, community and work place.

I am certified to administer three emotional intelligence psychometric tests: MSCEIT, EQ-i and Genos, and will provide you written personal development reports on where to strengthen your emotional skills. My Emotional Leader Programs guarantee that you will get from where you are to where you want to be when you apply your emotional intelligence. To review my leadership programs click here.

Emotional Intelligence Links

Dr. Mike Gosling’s 2006 Thesis – The Emotional Intelligence of Managers in Singapore

Dr. Mike Gosling’s 2006 Thesis Reference List

Emotional Leadership. Using emotionally intelligent behaviour to enjoy a life of EASE – Chapter 1

MSCEIT – Ability model of emotional intelligence

David Caruso’s EI Skills Group

Recommended Books on Emotional Intelligence

Genos EI Overview

The Emotionally Intelligent Leader – Dr. Ben Palmer

Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations

Complete the Genos EI Short Inventory

Emotional Competency Inventory

Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory – EQ-i

The EQ-i 2.0 ® Experience

Emotional intelligence can matter more than IQ

Dr Dorrian AikenAccording to Dr Dorrian Aiken, part-time lecturer at the University of Stellenbosch Business School, EQ is considered to be more important than IQ in leadership, management , parenting and teaching “because emotions are contagious”.

She says one person can influence the well-being of others by behaving in a way that causes them to become demotivated.

How we influence one another through our emotional intelligence and through our positivity is really important

Dr Dorrian Aiken, part-time lecturer at the University of Stellenbosch Business School

Dr Aiken says some evidence suggest that human beings are born with empathy, and we are compassionate beings, but we are also influenced by our environment.

Listen to the full conversation here…

The Genos EI Model

genos emotional intelligenceWhat it Is

The Genos EI Model is an internationally recognized Emotional Intelligence, or EQ, model and assessment combined with award winning development programs that enhance leadership, sales, teamwork and customer service.

How it is Used

  1. To identify talent. Our Emotional Intelligence assessment is used to identify people with naturally great soft skills, people who will make great leaders, sales or customer service personnel. In this context it is used in recruitment (external or internal hires) and internal talent benchmarking.
  2. To develop talent. Our Emotional Intelligence assessment and development programs are used to develop soft skills crucial to success in leadership, sales, teamwork and customer service. These skills include self-awareness; understanding others, personal resiliency and influencing others.

What Difference it Makes

Backed by follow-on coaching and learning programs that increase the frequency with which individuals demonstrate emotionally intelligent workplace behavior, the Genos Emotional Intelligence solution delivers tangible returns in variables such as employee engagement, leadership effectiveness, customer satisfaction, and sales revenue.

The New EQ-i 2.0® Experience

The New EQ-i 2.0® truly exemplifies these core principles. In fact, it is so far beyond what is available in the market today that we prefer to talk about the EQ-i 2.0 in terms of providing a new experience rather than a new product.

A New Experience

Why is it a new experience? It’s an experience because the EQ-i 2.0 provides you with an array of services and client-focused offerings, all delivered through an easy-to-access online portal. This new experience not only provides you with a newly updated emotional intelligence assessment, the additional services will help make you an expert  in emotional intelligence, thereby giving you  a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Like with any good development process, we didn’t come up with this overnight. In order to really understand what this  experience should look like, we needed to  get our information straight from the source.

Daniel Goleman on Emotional Intelligence

Daniel Goleman talks about how in order to be in a top profession a person needs, aside from a high IQ, the ability to be self-motivated and emotionally intelligent.

Express Emotion Using Your Emotional Style

express-expressPeople high in this emotional wealth habit typically …

  • Understand and effectively express how they feel about various issues; that is, in the right way, to the right degree and at the right time.
  • Effectively utilise and are confident in using non-verbal emotional cues, for example, body language and tone of voice, to communicate how they feel.
  • Create greater understanding about themselves amongst their colleagues.
  • Are described by colleagues as “genuine and trustworthy”.

The ability to express emotion will help you to…

UNDERSTAND: How difficult it can be to give up old habits.


  • Know my emotional style – Express effectively how you feel
  • Work on my EAR-Identity – Be aware of your emotional “triggers”
  • Use the GAP – Get accurate perceptions and end emotional constipation


  • Be ignorant of my emotional style – We each experience our emotion differently
  • Become emotionally constipated – Listen to your body, it is telling you something
  • Express my emotions inappropriately – Express how you feel at the appropriate time


You have been successful expressing emotion when you see yourself

  • Expressing how you feel to others to build greater trust with colleagues
  • Adjusting your beliefs, values, and expectations that cause you pain
  • Putting a “GAP” between events and your responses


Human beings have an enormous capacity for self-judgement. Mackay & Fanning[1] (2000) wrote: “One of the main factors differentiating humans from other animals is the awareness of self: the ability to form an identity and then attach a value to it.” When your inner voice judges and rejects you, you damage the psychological structures that literally keep you alive. Prolonged self-judgement can result in lowered self-esteem. As stress rises, self-esteem decreases, and vice versa.

Get to know your own brain; how you process emotion. Be aware of the cause of your emotions and use the GAP – Get Accurate Perceptions of events!




[1] McKay, M & Fanning, P 2000, Self-Esteem, 3rd ed, New Harbinger Publications, USA